The upper elementary curriculum begins with a system of review units that further instill the understanding and application of the elements and principles of design. The 4th grade year unit structure generally focuses on re-enforcing techniques and concepts introduced in the lower elementary curriculum. An emphasis is placed on portraiture, color theory and abstraction, as inspired by historically significant or contemporary artists. Starting in 5th grade, students are taken through a series of drawing units which focus on value, contour, volume, space and linear perspective. The application of color and color theory are utilized to enhance composition work. As the year progresses, sculpture is introduced into the curriculum through the use of ceramic clay, plaster, wire and various rigid material.